**带电粒子**

与世界顶级带电粒子设备设计师、制造商和科学家合作了近三十年，带着这三十年的工程经验，Opera为工程程师和有限元专家持续提供可靠和有效的带电粒子多物理场设计方案，来满足不同的应用的需要。

**常见问题**

Opera的带电粒子模型包括:

- Thermionic
- Thermal saturation
- Space-charge limited emission
- Langmuir/Fry

- Field effect
- Plasma free surface
- Surface secondary emission (backscattered and true secondary)
- Volume interactions (backscatter, ionisation)
- Magnetized plasma
- User defined emitter

When it comes to evaluating the statistics of an ion beam, the starting point is usually a patch placed across the beam at some user-defined location. Standard tools in the Post-Processor can then extract intersection data, such as the current and velocity components of each intersecting trajectory and the number and current densities. From these, simple additional computations can generate beam metrics, including the moments, emittance and phase space.

The beamlet space charge affects the electric field distribution and may also affect the current in the beamlets. A consistent voltage, current and space charge distribution is required and this is calculated by an iteration that updates the space charge distribution, recalculates the electric fields and then the beamlet trajectories.

Opera combines accurate finite element analysis with detailed models for plasma, sputtering, and film deposition to provide the first practical tools for magnetron design and optimization. Opera can be used to predict target erosion and to optimize utilization. It can accurately characterize the design of magnet systems, including multi-target coaters, and it can predict deposited film profiles and the deposition dynamics.

Secondary emission properties can be applied to labelled surfaces of the model. Collisions of the particle beamlets with these labelled surfaces are detected and secondary particles are introduced. These secondaries may also collide to produce further new secondary particles; the maximum number of generations of secondary particles can be limited. The space charge effects created by secondary particles can be excluded from the calculation.

Opera is multiphysics software, so the heat generated due to the particle beam can be passed seamlessly to Opera’s thermal module to calculate the resultant temperature rise.